Name:    Benchmark 2014 Review

1.

The graph below shows the data collected by a student as she watched a squirrel running on the ground. The reference point for motion was a large tree and all of the motion was in the same direction. Use the graph to answer the question that follows. Which conclusion about the motion of the squirrel between 2 s and 5 s is supported by the graph?
 A The squirrel’s velocity increased. B The squirrel’s velocity decreased. C The squirrel did not move at all. D The squirrel moved forward.

2.

What is the average velocity of the squirrel in the time interval between 1 s and 5 s?
 A 0.31 m/s B 3.2 m/s C 0.38 m/s D 4.0 m/s

3.

An inline skater skates on a circular track 120.0 m in diameter at a tangential speed of 6.50 m/s. If the skater’s mass is 68.5 kg, what is the magnitude of the centripetal force on the skater?
 A 5.25 N B 10.5 N C 48.2 N D 96.6 N

4.

A roller skate rolls off a 2.08 m high ledge and lands on the ground 1.25 m away from the base of the ledge. How fast was the roller skate rolling?
 A 1.75 m/s B 1.92 m/s C 4.90 m/s D 7.82 m/s 5.

Which graph represents an object moving with constant positive velocity?

 A B C D 6.

According to Newton’s Third Law, when two objects exert forces on each other, the forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Suppose you witnessed a head-on car accident in which a small electric car collided with a large SUV. Based on Newton’s laws of motion, what do you know about the forces and accelerations felt by the drivers of the vehicles?
 A The electric car driver experiences a greater magnitude of impact force and a greater acceleration than the SUV driver. B Both drivers experience the same magnitude of impact force, but the small electric car driver experiences a much greater acceleration. C Both drivers experience the same magnitude of impact force and the same magnitude of acceleration. D The SUV driver experiences a greater impact force, and a greater acceleration.

7.

A sign for the Le Creme Ice Cream Shoppe hangs from the ceiling of a storefront. Two wires (of negligible mass) support the sign, and have upward tensions of 600.0 N each. Using a free body diagram of all forces on this sign, what is the mass (in kg) of the sign?

8.

Two wrestlers, apart, exert a gravitational force on each other. One has a mass of 165 kg. What is the other’s mass (in kg)?

9.

Two objects with masses m and m are a distance r apart. The gravitational force between them is of magnitude F. Suppose we double m and double m . What is the magnitude of the new gravitational force?
 A F B F C F D F

10.

According to Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, mass curves space. In 1919, observations of a total solar eclipse showed that Einstein was correct. In the direction of the Sun, stars that could be seen only during the eclipse were in slightly different positions than expected. The mass of the Sun had curved space and made the light appear to come from a slightly different location.

How did Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity change scientific thought and society’s view of space?
 A It is now known that massive objects curve space much like a mattress when you sit on it. B Space is now considered to be Euclidean where any set of points can be connected with a straight, non-curved line. C Scientists did not accept Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity and Einstein became known as a quack scientist. D Solar eclipses are now believed to be caused by the Sun dipping below the Earth’s line of sight due to a deep curvature of space.

11.

How does the force that holds the nucleus together compare to the electromagnetic force that causes protons and electrons to stay together in atoms?
 A The nuclear force is stronger than the electromagnetic force at very short distances but weaker at longer distances. B The nuclear force is stronger than the electromagnetic force under all conditions. C The nuclear force is stronger than the electromagnetic force at very short distances but equal at longer distances. D The nuclear force is equal to the electromagnetic force.

12.

A clown throws a juggling pin upward with an initial velocity of 9.16 m/s. How long will the pin take to return to its starting point?
 A 0.934 s B 1.07 s C 1.87 s D 2.14 s

13.

A man swings a bucket on a 150-cm rope with a tangential speed of 4.5 m/s. If the magnitude of the centripetal force is 25 N, what is the bucket’s mass (in kg)?

14.

A car starts from rest and travels for 8.0 s with a uniform acceleration of .The driver then applies the brakes, causing a uniform acceleration of .If the brakes are applied for 3.0 s, how far has it gone from its start?
 A 59 m B 32m C 19 m D 14 m

15.

Why don’t the action and reaction forces cancel each other out when a soccer ball is kicked?
 A The forces act at different times. B The forces are not equal in size C The forces act on different objects. D The forces act in the same direction.

16.

In a laboratory, a scientist applied pushes and pulls to a 1 kg block using devices that measured the applied force. The forces were applied in four directions as Figure 1.Sensors recorded the motion of the block each second for 4 sec, as shown in Table 1, and a computer calculated the average velocity for each 1-sec period. What was the force of friction on the block in this experiment?
 A 1.0 N to the right B 1.0 N to the left C 2.0 N to the left D 3.0 N to the right

17.

An escalator is 15.0 m long. If a person stands on the escalator, it takes 45.0 s to ride to the top. If a person walks up the moving escalator with a speed of 0.500 m/s relative to escalator, how long does it take the person to get to the top?
 A 4 s B 22.2 s C 40 s D 18 s

18.

The illustration below is of the moon’s orbit around Earth. The moon has a mass of , while the Earth has a mass of .If the moon’s orbit were circular according to the illustration above, what would be its orbital speed?
 A B C D 19.

A woman throws the weighted end of a rope across a river to a friend located on the opposite bank. She throws it with a velocity of 9.5 m/s at an angle of relative to the ground. Her friend catches it at the same height it was thrown. How long was the rope end in the air before her friend caught it?
 A 0.48 s B 0.97 s C 5.06 s D 1.19 s

20.

A man lost in a maze makes three consecutive displacements so that at the end of the walk he is back where he started, as shown below. The first displacement is 8.00 m westward, and the second is 13.0 m northward. Use the graphical method to find the third displacement.
 A 21 m, 58.4° south of east B 21 m, 31.6° south of east C 15.3 m, 58.4° south of east D 15.3 m, 31.6° south of east

21.

During the July 1971 Apollo 15 moon landing, Commander David Scott was filmed performing an experiment. He dropped a falcon feather and a geological hammer from the same height, and saw that the feather and the hammer hit the lunar surface at the same time due to the close vacuum conditions. This experiment is a confirmation that all objects accelerate the same in gravity fields in the absence of air resistance. Whose scientific work from 1638 did Commander Scott confirm?
 A Isaac Newton’s B Edwin Hubble’s C Albert Einstein’s D Galileo Galilei’s

22.

A blue whale is 2.5 m from a whale shark. What is the gravitational force between them?
 A 0.16 N B 0.11 N C D 23.

A ball with a mass of m is thrown into the air, as shown in the figure below. What is the force exerted on ball by the Earth?
 A m g, directed down B m g, directed up C m g, directed down D m g, directed up

24.

A crate is pulled to the right (positive x-axis) with a force of 82.0 N, to the left with a force of 115 N, upward with a force of 565 N, and downward with a force of 236 N. Draw a free-body diagram and find the magnitude and direction of the net force on the crate.
 A 3.30 N at counterclockwise from the positive x-axis B 3.30 N at counterclockwise from the positive x-axis C 3.30 10 N at counterclockwise from the positive x-axis D 3.30 ´ 10 N at counterclockwise from the positive x-axis

25.

Which scientist was able to show that Kepler’s laws of planetary motion could be derived from three laws of motion and the assumption that a force, “gravity,” drew all bodies with mass towards each other.
 A Isaac Newton B Nicolaus Copernicus C Tycho Brahe D Claudius Ptolemy

26.

Multiple light bulbs are connected in series across a 120.0 V source of emf. The current in the circuit is measured with a multimeter as 1.25 A. If each light bulb has a resistance of 3.00 , how many light bulbs are in the circuit?
 A 10 bulbs B 32 bulbs C 40  bulbs D 96 bulbs

27.

What is the equivalent resistance of the circuit below? A 0.0714 B 0.214 C 0.875 D 4.67 28.

The graph below shows the energy of a 75 g yo-yo at different times as the yo-yo moves up and down on its string. What is the speed of the yo-yo after 4.5 s?
 A 3.1 m/s B 2.3 m/s C 3.6 m/s D 1.6 m/s

29.

When you place a metal pan on a hot stove burner, the pan’s metal handle becomes hot even though it is far from the burner because of
 A convection B electromagnetic radiation C phase change D thermal conduction

30.

A mass is attached to a spring as shown below and moves with simple harmonic motion on a frictionless horizontal surface. In what form is the energy in the system when the mass passes through the equilibrium position?
 A elastic potential energy B gravitational potential energy C kinetic energy D a combination of elastic potential energy and kinetic energy

31.

What must be true about two given objects for energy to be transferred as heat between them?
 A The objects must be large. B The objects must be hot. C The objects must contain a large amount of energy. D The objects must have different temperatures.

32.

How does a wave transfer energy through a medium?
 A The particles in the medium vibrate. B The wave moves between the particles of the medium. C The wave gains energy from the particles in the medium. D The particles in the medium move in the direction of the wave.

33.

If the index of refraction of the bottom medium in the diagram below is approximately 1.00, what is the index of refraction for the top medium? 34.

When the compression of one longitudinal wave and the rarefaction of another combine, there is
 A reflection B an antinode C destructive interference D constructive interference

35.

Which of the following technologies takes advantage of wave characteristics and behaviors?
 A ultrasound to image a fetus B hydrostatic weighing tank to measure a person’s BMI or body mass index C heating a pot of water on the stove D nuclear fission at a nuclear power plant

36.

The diagram below shows a circuit with resistors A, B, and C. If the resistance of bulb A is 6 , the resistance of bulb B is 18 , and the equivalence resistance of the circuit is 12 , what is the resistance of bulb C?
 A 0.0 B 6.0 C 7.2 D 9.0 37.

In a ____ circuit, the current is always the same for each resistor.
 A closed B series C open D parallel

38.

The vector below represents the momentum of a car traveling along a road. The car strikes another car, which is at rest, and the result is an inelastic collision. Which of the following vectors represents the momentum of the first car after the collision? 39.

A wave traveling in the positive x direction with a frequency of 25.0 Hz is shown in the diagram below. What is the wave speed of this wave?
 A 2.25 m/s B 2.50 m/s C 4.50 m/s D 5.00 m/s

40.

What happens if two light waves with the same amplitude interfere constructively?
 A the amplitude of the resultant wave is zero B the amplitude of the resultant wave is half their amplitude C the amplitude of the resultant wave is twice their amplitude D the amplitude of the resultant wave is four times their amplitude